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2nd Edition of "The Hamiltons 1762-1862" NOW AVAILABLE



The content of these web pages is based on the 1st edition of my book "The Hamiltons 1762-1862" originally published in 1997

The 2nd Edition was published in 2009 . A 2012 Revised 2nd Edition is now available to coincide with the 175th anniversary of the arrival of the Hamiltons in South Australia in 1837.


Preview and order the book by opening the viewer at the right.

3rd Edition

A 3rd completely revised edition is in preparation and contains corrections and additions to the section on William Holmes Hamilton and the Duke of York, as well as further discussion about the speculated origins of the Hamilton family. Details on the Historia Incognita web page.


11. Footnotes and References

[1] These items seen by the author were in the possession of Robert Hamilton in January 1998.

[2] Letter from Margaret Morrison to Douglas Wilkie, December 1997

[3] Letter from C.L.Henderson to R.H.Hamilton at Ewell Vineyards, August 1978. Copy supplied by Walter Hamilton of Glen Osmond January 1998.

[4] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton at Ewell Vineyards, August 1978.

[5] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[6] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[7] Bell Family book

[8] Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[9] Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[10] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[11] Langley, Michael, The East Surrey Regiment - The 31st and 70th Regiments of Foot, Leo Cooper, London, 1972, p.13

[12] Pearse, Colonel Hugh W., History of the 31st Foot Huntingdonshire Regiment and 70th Foot Surrey Regiment, Subsequently 1st & 2nd Battalions the East Surrey Regiment, 3 Vols, Spottiswoode, Ballantyne & Co., London 1916, Vol.1, p.22.

[13] Pearse, Vol.1, p.20

[14] Pearse, Vol.1, p.20

[15] Pearse, Vol.1, p.22

[16] Fortescue, J.W., A History of the British Army, Macmillan, London, 1910, Vol.ii, pp.114-117

[17] Fortescue, p.119

[18] Langley, pp.14-15

[19] Langley, pp.15-16

[20] Langley, p.17; Pearse, Vol.1, p.40

[21] Pearse, Vol.1, pp.41-43

[22] Pearse, Vol.1, p.41, p.239; Fortescue, Vol.ii, pp.305-306

[23] Pearse, Vo.1, p.239

[24] Pearse, Vol.1, pp.42-43

[25] IGI lists James Hamilton, a soldier with the 70th Regiment of Foot, as marrying Elizabeth Taylor at the church of St Paul, Canterbury, on 12 January 1862 - IGI M0165411 942.23/C1 V26CT; also Canterbury Church Records, St Paul, Archdeacon’s Transcripts - IGI Film #1751627 provided by Joan Maguire

[26] Pearse, Vol.1, p.240

[27] Lawson, Cecil, A History of the Uniforms of the British Army, VolII, p.94

[28] Pearse, Vol.1, p.240

[29] Pearse, Vol.1, pp.240-241

[30] Pearse, Vol.1, p.241

[31] Pearse, Vol.1, p.242

[32] Pearse, Vol.1, p.243

[33] IGI Source 942.23/C1 V26CT

[34] An early IGI entry - M016451/2623 listed James Hamilton marrying Jane Taylor at St Paul, Canterbury on 12 January 1862; However the 1994 IGI lists James Hamilton as marrying Elizabeth Taylor at the same church on the same date - IGI M0165411 942.23/C1 V26CT; also Canterbury Church Records, St Paul, Archdeacon’s Transcripts - IGI Film #1751627 provided by Joan Maguire

[35] IGI Source 942.23/C1 V26CT; also Canterbury Church Records, St Paul, Archdeacon’s Transcripts - IGI Film #1751627. The father, James Hamilton, is listed as a Soldier.

[36] Canterbury Church Records, St Paul, Archdeacon’s Transcripts - IGI Film #1751627. The father is listed as James Hamilton.

[37] IGI Source 942.23/C1 V26CT; also Canterbury Church Records, St Paul, Archdeacon’s Transcripts - IGI Film #1751627

[38] Pearse, Vol.1, p.243

[39] Pearse, Vol.1, p.244

[40] Pearse, Vol.1, pp.244-245

[41] Fortescue, Vol.iii, pp.41-43

[42] Pearse, Vol.1, p.246

[43] Fortescue, Vol.iii, pp.41-43

[44] Parish Register St Mary the Virgin, transcript supplied by Vera Maddison 4 October 1999; IGI Films #355633 and #355634

[45] All listed in the St Mary the Virgin Parish Register of Baptisms, IGI Films #355633, and #355634

[46] Parish Register St Mary the Virgin, transcript supplied by Vera Maddison 4 October 1999; These names and dates are also listed in Hamilton, Sydney H., Recollections of Sydney Holmes Hamilton 1898-1987, Ed.Alison Dolling, 1992, p.11, Limited Edition of 200 copies December 1992, Dianna Ramsey, 31 Brunswick Street, Walkerville, S.A.5081; IGI Film #355633 confirms the dates and parents.

[47] Adam Hamilton married Ann Reynolds on 3 October 1790 at St Mary the Virgin. They had a daughter, Ann baptised on 30 January 1791, James bp.3 February 1793, Hannah bp.15 February 1795, and Joseph bp.19 May 1797, and William bp.15 January 1800 at St Mary the Virgin, Dover (Transcript from Vera Maddison and IGI Film #355633). James later became an apprentice cordwainer and was sponsored by his uncle Richard Hamilton. The IGI Films #355633 and 355634 has no record of Adam Hamilton’s baptism at Dover.

[48] Canterbury Church Records, St Paul, Archdeacon’s Transcripts - IGI Film #1751627

[49] Parish Register of Marriages, St Mary the Virgin, Dover; IGI Film #355634

[50] Parish Register of Burials, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, IGI Film #1836142 , provided by Joan Maguire

[51] Parish Register of Burials, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, IGI Film #355634

[52] Parish Register of Burials, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, IGI Film #1836142, provided by Joan Maguire. Parish Register of Marriages, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, IGI Films #355633 and #355634

[53] Both listed in IGI 097137; The Parish Register for Ewell contains no further details about this James Hamilton

[54] Henry Hamilton and the Ewell Vineyard are discussed later at page 83.

[55] Pearse, Vol.1, p.22. Handasyd had been promoted to Brigadier-General. There was also a Lieutenant George Dalrymple with the regiment. Dalrymple died on 30 March 1742.

[56] Pearse, Vol.1, p.41

[57] Pearse, Vol.1, p.43

[58] Parish Register of Burials, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, IGI Film #1836142 , provided by Joan Maguire

[59] Parish Register of Marriages, St Mary the Virgin, Dover; IGI Film #355634. There is a second marriage entry for Jane Hamilton and Robert Lowther dated 4 February 1777 at St Mary the Virgin, Dover, on the same film.

[60] Parish Register St Mary the Virgin Dover, Banns on 29 June, 6 and 13 July 1788, Marriage on 16 August 1788. Transcript supplied by Vera Maddison 4 October 1999.

[61] For Richard Hamilton’s marriage see page 59.

[62] Transcript of entries in the Willson/Hedgecock/Burges Family Bible, supplied by Neil Barnes, 6 July 1998. Other members of the Hedgecock family were William Hedgecock, bp.10 November 1765; Margate Hedgecock, b.12 October bp.19 October 1772; Judith Hedgecock, b.3 August bp.14 August 1775

[63] Parish Baptism Register, St Mary the Virgin, Dover; IGI 355633; Michael Hedgecock and Judith Cox had married at St Mary the Virgin, Dover, on 28 January 1760.

[64] Parish Register, St Mary the Virgin, Dover:- Sarah Hamilton, bp 19 April 1789

[65] Parish Register, St Mary the Virgin, Dover:- Michael Hamilton, bp.25 May 1791, Vera Maddison's transcript gives 28 May 1791

[66] Parish Register, St Mary the Virgin, Dover:- Henry Duncan Hamilton, bp.13 February 1806

[67] Parish Burial Register, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, Henry Duncan Hamilton of Snargate Street bur.. 22 April 1822 IGI Film #0355634; Neil Barnes, June 1998; An Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of John and Sarah Hamilton was christened at St.Paul’s, Canterbury on 16 March 1806.

[68]Birth date from Neil Barnes, June 1998, although no record of Jane’s birth or baptism has been located in the St Mary the Virgin Parish Registers or on the IGI. J. Bavington Jones, 1907, states that she was John Hamilton’s youngest daughter. The Smithett Family Bible states that she died in April 1846 aged 38.

[69] Keith Eckert, p.35, states that another son, Allen Hamilton, was baptised on 1 September 1809. Not found in the IGI.

[70] Parish Register, St Mary the Virgin, Dover:- Mary Ann Hamilton bp,3 February 1812; IGI Film #0355633

[71] Jones, J. Bavington, Dover, The Dover Express,1907

[72] Eckert, p.1; Hamilton, S.H., p.11

[73] Thomas, David A., A Companion to the Royal Navy, Harrap, London, 1988, p.56

[74] Hepper, David J., British Warship Losses in the Age of Sail 1650-1859, Jean Boudroit, East Sussex, 1994, p183

[75] James, William, The Naval History of Great Britain..., R.Bentley, London, 1847

[76] Syrett, David, The Commissioned Officers of the Royal Navy 1660 - 1815, Scholars Press for the Navy Records Society, London, 1994, p.197

[77] Hepper, David J., pp.96, 201; Navy List 1794/5 – Neil Barnes 11 July 1998

[78] Thomas, David A., A Companion to the Royal Navy, Harrap, London, 1988, p.56, p.326

[79] Cotton, The East Indiamen, pp.80-81

[80] Thomas, David A., A Companion to the Royal Navy, Harrap, London, 1988, p.56, p.326

[81] Lloyd, Christopher, The British Seamen 1200-1860 - A Social Survey, Collins, London, 1968, p.162

[82] Lewis, Michael, A Social History of the Navy 1793-1815, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1960, pp.95-119

[83] Lewis, p.106

[84] Lewis, pp.117-120

[85] Thompson, p.183

[86] Lewis, p.125

[87] Dover Borough Records, Apprenticeship Enrolments, Indentures 1673-1788, IGI Film #1656692

[88] For Richard Hamilton’s apprenticeship see page 59

[89] Barrow, John, Tour on the Continent by Rail and Road in the Summer of 1852, Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, London, 1853, Appendix: Memoir on the Services of Sir John Hamilton, pp.119-124; Neil Barnes, 11 July 1998

[90] Gardiner, Robert ed., Fleet Battle and Blockade – The French Revolutionary War 1793-1797, Chatham Publishing & National Maritime Museum, London, 1996, pp.21-23

[91] Gardiner, p.23

[92] The Times, Tuesday 14 May 1793

[93] Letter from Clements to Kerenveyer 24 April 1793, in The Times, Friday 17 May 1793

[94] The Times, Friday 17 May 1793

[95] The Times, Tuesday 21 May 1793

[96] The Times, Thursday 23 May 1793, Saturday 25 May 1793

[97] The Times, Saturday 25 May 1793

[98] The Times, Thursday 16 May 1793

[99] The Times, Tuesday 6 August 1793

[100] The Times, Wednesday 28 August 1793; Letter dated 23 August 1793 in The Times, 6 September 1793

[101] The Times, Monday 2 September 1793

[102] The Times, Tuesday 4 June 1793

[103] The Times, Tuesday 3 September 1793

[104] The Times, Thursday 5 September 1793

[105] The Times, Monday 9 September 1793

[106] The Times, Tuesday 10 September 1793

[107] The Times, Thursday 12 September 1793; See also Blanning, T.C.W., The French Revolutionary Wars 1787-1802, Arnold, London, 1996, pp.107-110

[108] The Times, Thursday 12 September 1793; Friday 13 September 1793

[109] Barrow, pp.119-124

[110] Fraser, Flora, The Unruly Queen, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1996, pp.33-43

[111] Fraser, pp.49-51

[112] Fraser, pp.51-52

[113] The Times, Saturday 4 April 1795

[114] The Times, Saturday 4 April 1795

[115] Fraser, p.53

[116] The Times, Monday 6 April 1795 contains a full account of the journey of the Princess from Hanover to London; Barrow, p.119 contains John Hamilton’s statement that he commanded one of the cutters that escorted the Princess.

[117] Fraser, p.54

[118] The Times, Monday 6 April 1795

[119] The Times, Monday 6 April 1795

[120] The Times, Tuesday 7 April 1795

[121] The Times, Tuesday 6 June 1820

[122] The Times, Tuesday 6 June 1820

[123] The Times, Tuesday 6 June 1820

[124] The Times, Wednesday 7 June 1820

[125] The Times, Tuesday 6 June 1820

[126] The Times, Monday 20 April 1795; Tuesday 21 April 1795. The name of the second cutter is not given.

[127] Neil Barnes, 6 July 1998

[128] Barrow, pp.119-124

[129] Preparations for this secret expedition were reported in The Times between Saturday 13 June 1795 and Monday 13 July 1795.Gardiner, p.48

[130] The Times, Friday 19 June 1795

[131] The Times, Saturday 4 July 1795.

[132] The Times, Tuesday 7 July 1795

[133] The Times, Thursday 9, Friday 10 July 1795

[134] The Times, Wednesday 15 July 1795

[135] The Times, Reports about troop arrivals almost every day from Monday 13 July

[136] The Times, Reports about troop departures almost every day from Monday 13 July

[137] The Times, Friday 24 July 1795

[138] The Times, Monday 27 July 1795

[139] The Times, Wednesday 29 July 1795

[140] The Times, Monday 3 August 1795

[141] The Times, Friday 31 July 1795

[142] The Times, Thursday 30 July 1795

[143] The Times, Tuesday 18 July 1795

[144] The Times, Thursday 30 July 1795, Thursday 6 August, Saturday 8 August, Wednesday 12 August.

[145] The Times, Thursday 20 August 1795

[146] The Times, Friday 28 August 1795

[147] The Times, Saturday 19 September, Wednesday 23 September 1795

[148] The Times, Saturday 29 August 1795

[149] The Times, Wednesday 5 August 1795

[150] The Times consistently gives the name as the Isle Dieu, however it may be the Isle d’Yieu which is south west of Quiberon Bay.

[151] The Times, Saturday 24 October 1795

[152] The Times, Tuesday 27 October 1795

[153] The Times, Monday 2 November 1795

[154] The Times, Monday 9 November 1795

[155] The Times, Thursday 19 November 1795

[156] The Times, Friday 20 November 1795

[157] The Times, Saturday 21 November 1795

[158] Barrow, pp.119-124

[159] Gardiner, p.48

[160] Gardiner, pp.51-52

[161] Gardiner, p.54

[162] The Times, Thursday 2 April 1795

[163] The name Texel, although the name of the actual island of Texel, was also used to refer to the general passage past the island into the Dutch harbours.

[164] Thompson, E.P., The Making of the English Working Class, Penguin, 1968, p.183

[165] Thompson, p.162

[166] Thompson, p.183

[167] The Times, London, Wednesday, 31 May 1797

[168] The Times, London, Wednesday, 31 May; 1 June 1797

[169] Manwaring, G.E., & Dobree, B., The Floating Republic, Penguin, London, 1935, pp.173-183

[170] The Times, London, 1 June 1797

[171] Von Pivka, Otto, Navies of the Napoleonic Era, David and Charles, London, 1980, p.54; It is not known whether John Hamilton and the Active were involved with the mutiny or whether he remained with Duncan. It might be assumed that, as he was not an official member of the Navy, he was not involved.

[172] Manwaring, p.180

[173] Earl of Camperdown, Admiral Duncan, Longmans Green, London, 1898, p.38

[174] Earl of Camperdown, p.186

[175] Duncan to Admiralty, 1 October 1797, Earl of Camperdown, p.188

[176] Duncan to Admiralty, 3 October 1797, Earl of Camperdown, p.191

[177] James, Vol.ii p.68 states that there were 21 ships and 4 brigs

[178] Von Pivka, p.55

[179] Barrow, p.120

[180] Barrow, p.120

[181] Halkett to Duncan, 7 October 1797, Earl of Camperdown, p.194

[182] Trollope to Duncan, 7 October 1797, Earl of Camperdown, p.195

[183] The Times, London, 14 October 1797;. The Times states that it was a lugger, however Von Pivka, p.55, says that it was the Active., as does the entry in Boase Modern English Biography; John Lamb, Assistant editor with the Dundee Courier advises that it was the Active that first saw the Dutch leave port - Email 25 July 1997.; Woodman’s account, p.242, has the Active remaining with Trollope. and the Black Joke, going to inform Duncan; James states that it was the Black Joke, followed later by the Active. . Lloyd, Christopher, St.Vincent and Camperdown, Batsford, London, 1963, pp.133-134. Lloyd says it was the lugger Speculator which first broke the news.

[184] Woodman relates the sending of the Active in A King’s Cutter, p.243; The Times, London, 14 October 1797

[185] Barrow, pp.119-124

[186] A painting of the Active signalling to Duncan was painted by J.W.Huggins in about 1830. It is in the Scottish United Services Museum, Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh (Ref. M.1994.211)

[187] Duncan to Admiralty, 9 October 1797, Earl of Camperdown, p.200

[188] The Times, London, 11 October 1797

[189] The Times, London, 11 October 1797

[190] Duncan's letter to the Admiralty, 13 October 1797, published in The Times, 17 October 1797

[191] The Times, London, 12 October 1797

[192] Although we would today probably refer to the fleet as being "British" it was commonly referred to at the time as being the "English" fleet, despite the fact that the Scot, Duncan, was in charge.

[193] Duncan’s account from his Log Book is in Robinson, Captain Edward, Life of Jack Crawford, London 1866, pp.8-10; Copy supplied by Shelagh Mason

[194] Robinson, p.11

[195] Robinson, p.11

[196] Robinson, pp.8-9

[197] Barrow, pp.121-123

[198] The Times, 17 October 1797

[199] Von Pivka, p.56

[200] Copy of engraving supplied by Shelagh Mason, December 1997; The painting by Daniel Orme is in the National Maritime Museum, London (Ref: BHC 3100)

[201] King, Cecil, H.M.S. His Majesty's Ships and their forebears, Studio Publications, London, 1940, p.199

[202] Treasure, G.R.R., Who’s Who in History, Vol. V., England 1789-1837, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1974, pp.187-188

[203] Letter from Duncan to the Admiralty, 13 October 1797, published in The Times, 17 October

[204] Letter from Duncan to the Admiralty, 15 October 1797, published in The Times, 17 October 1797

[205] Von Pivka, pp.56-57

[206] Barrow, p.121

[207] The words are exactly as recalled by John Hamilton in Barrow, p123

[208] See also: Earl of Camperdown, Admiral Duncan, London, 1898; James, W., The Naval History of Great Britain, 1793-1820, London, 1837

[209] Robinson, p.12

[210] Robinson, p.17

[211] Robinson, p.12

[212] Von Pivka, p.74

[213] Von Pivka, p.14

[214] The Times, London, 31 October 1800; Von Pivka, p.220 gives 13 October 1800 for the Rose and 23 November 1800 for the Active.

[215] Hepper, pp.96, 183, 201

[216] British Parliamentary Papers, East India, Vol.4, Account between the Public and the East India Company – Report of the Select Committee with Appendix, 1805 (197) Vol.IV p.116

[217] King, Cecil H.M.S - His Majesty’s Ships and their Forebears, Studio Publications, London, 1940, p.212

[218] Miller, Russell, The East Indiamen, Time-Life, 1980, p.155; Cotton, p.160

[219] Hall, Captain Basil R.N., Fragments of Voyages and Travels, 2nd Edn., London, 1840

[220] The references for these journals are IOR: L/MAR/B/125G, L/MAR/B/125H and L/MAR/B/125I.

[221] Information from Jill Geber, India Office Records, Oriental and India Office Collections 1997

[222] Hamilton, quoted in Barrow, p.123

[223] Macgregor, David R., Merchant Sailing Ships 1815-1850, Conway, London, 1984, pp.161-178 gives a good description of the Packet ships.

[224] Barrow, pp.123-124 The emphasis is apparently John Hamilton’s own.

[225] Barrow, p.121

[226] Great Britain G.P.O, Post Office Records, letter to E.G.Barnes, 10 October 1969 – supplied by Neil Barnes, July 1998; The Dorset is not mentioned by Grasemann.

[227] Jones, J.B., Annals of Dover, p.153; Norway, Arthur, History of the post-office packet service between the years 1793-1815, Macmillan, London, 1895, p.13

[228] Hamilton, James, Turner – A Life, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1997, p.73; Baily, Anthony, Standing in the Sun – A Life of J.M.W.Turner, Sinclair-Stevenson, London, 1997, p.322

[229] Hamilton, p.74

[230] Von Pivka, p.89

[231] Mathews, David, Steam Packet, Longmans, London, 1936, p.113

[232] Parish Register, St Mary the Virgin, Dover:- Henry Duncan Hamilton, bp.13 February 1806

[233] Parish Burial Register, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, Henry Duncan Hamilton of Snargate Street bur.. 22 April 1822 IGI Film #0355634; Neil Barnes, June 1998; An Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of John and Sarah Hamilton was christened at St.Paul’s, Canterbury on 16 March 1806.

[234] British Parliamentary Papers, East India Company, Vol.2, p.199

[235] Great Britain G.P.O, Post Office Records, letter to E.G.Barnes, 10 October 1969 – supplied by Neil Barnes, July 1998; Grasemann, C., & McLachlan, G., English Channel Packet Boats, Syren & Shipping, London, 1939, p.148 states that the Lord Duncan was built in 1819 especially for the Dover to Ostend Route.; Jones, J.Bravington, Dover, 1907

[236] Jones, J.B., Annals of Dover, p.153

[237] Birth date from Neil Barnes, June 1998, although no record of Jane’s birth or baptism has been located in the St Mary the Virgin Parish Registers or on the IGI. J. Bavington Jones, 1907, states that she was John Hamilton’s youngest daughter.

[238] Country Life, 16 August 1984, pp.470-471

[239] Keith Eckert, p.35, states that another son, Allen Hamilton, was baptised on 1 September 1809. Not found in the IGI and not listed in a Parish Register transcript supplied by Vera Maddison 4 October 1999.

[240] Parish Register, St Mary the Virgin, Dover:- Mary Ann Hamilton bp,3 February 1812; IGI Film #0355633

[241] Luke Smithett married Judith Hedgecock at St Mary the Virgin, Dover on 19 March 1795, Parish Register; IGI 355633. She was the daughter of Michael Hedgecock and Judith Cox; Some members of the Hedgecock family fell upon hard times and lived and died at the Dover Poor House during the 1820s and 30s - Oakey Hedgecock a.50, bur.13 Feb 1817, John Hedgecock a.1, bur. 2 Feb 1828, Louisa Hedgecock a.4, bur. 12 Feb 1829, James Hedgecock a.42, bur. 23 Mar 1833 - Parish Burial Register, St Mary the Virgin, IGI Film #355634

[242] See page 18

[243] Neil Barnes, June 1998

[244] Luke Smithett born 3 November 1800, bp.26 December 1801; Susanna Smithett bp.20 May 1796; William Smithett bp.1 May 1799 all at St Mary the Virgin Dover, IGI Film #355634

[245] E.G.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998

[246] Barrow, p.121

[247] Baily, p.323

[248] Baily, p.323

[249] Hamilton, p.195

[250] Dates of Turner’s travels from Hamilton, p.261 and Baily, pp.323-324.

[251] Grasemann, p.17

[252] Jones, J.B., Annals of Dover, 1916, p.153

[253] Grasemann, p.11

[254] Grasemann, p.13

[255] Most details of Luke Smithett’s career, unless otherwise acknowledged, are derived from the Luke Smithett Papers held by the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. They were summarised by E.G.Barnes in typescript notes dated 21 February 1954, and supplied by Neil Barnes 24 July 1998; Also contained in Section 4 – Catalogue of Personal Papers – National Maritime Museum – Papers of Captain Sir Luke Smithett KT. JP. DL. SMI/54.MS.072

[256] E.G.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998

[257] Neil Barnes, July 1998, information from National Maritime Museum, London; Grasemann does not list the Spitfire at all, but Jones, p.154, indicates that it was originally owned by private enterprise.

[258] Jones, Annals of Dover, pp.153-154

[259] IGI Film #355633, 355634, Parish Register, St Mary the Virgin.

[260] The exact dates for these children are: Janet Freeling Smithett, born 26 October 1829, and baptized on 22 January 1830 at St Mary the Virgin, Dover; Marcus Edmiston Smithett, born 16 August 1831, baptized 18 October 1831; Henrietta Burrell Smithett, born 28 November 1834, baptised 16 January 1835; Hamilton Smithett, baptized 4 August 1836; Albert Lake Collins Smithett, born 29 February 1840, baptized 14 April 1840; Agnes Anne Banfield Smithett, born 3 March 1842, baptized 3 August 1842; and William Smithett, baptized on 19 March 1846; All listed IGI Film #355633, 355634, Parish Register, St Mary the Virgin.

[261] House of Commons, Select Committee on Steam Navigation, Minutes of Evidence, 28 September 1831

[262] G.P.O, Post Office Records lists William Smithett in command of the Dolphin from 20 April 1826 at Liverpool and promoted to Dover on 9 August 1828

[263] Navy List – Neil Barnes 11 July 1998

[264] E.G.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, quoting from a letter from John Little to the PMG, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998

[265] E.G.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, quoting from a letter from Thomas Laurence dated 25 February 1836, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998

[266] E.G.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, quoting from a letter from Thomas Laurence dated 5 December 1836, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998

[267] The Times, Tuesday 20 June 1837

[268] The Times, Saturday 30 June 1837 states that the Katherine Stewart Forbes left Gravesend on 27-28 June.

[269] For details of Richard Hamilton’s voyage on the Katherine Stewart Forbes see page 83.

[270] National Maritime Museum information supplied by Neil Barnes 11 July 1998

[271] National Maritime Museum information supplied by Neil Barnes 11 July 1998

[272] The Times, Wednesday 30 August 1837

[273] The Times, Saturday 23 September 1837

[274] The Times, Saturday 23 September 1837

[275] Information received from the Oostende Travel Service via Internet, 23 July 1997, http://www.trabel.com.oostende/toknow.htm

[276] Jones, J.B., Annals of Dover, p.156.

[277] Catalogue of Personal Papers – National Maritime Museum – SMI/54.MS.072

[278] Baily, p.344

[279] E.G.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998

[280] Baily, p.269

[281] Falk, Bernard, Turner the Painter – His Hidden Life, Hutchinson, London, 1938, pp.195-196

[282] Now known as St Margaret’s at Cliffe

[283] Hamilton, pp.281-287; Falk, p.195-196

[284] Hamilton, p.282-283; Falk, p.146

[285] Hirsh, Diana, The World of Turner 1775-1851, Time-Life 1973

[286] Falk, p.146; Edgerton, Judy, Turner – The Fighting Temeraire, National Gallery London, 1995, p.4

[287] House of Commons, Second Report from the Select Committee on Postage, Minutes of Evidence, 1 August 1838, p.337

[288] Navy List – Neil Barnes 11 July 1998

[289] The Times, Wednesday 5 September 1838

[290] National Maritime Museum information supplied by Neil Barnes 11 July 1998

[291] The Times, Wednesday 5 September 1838

[292] The Times, Thursday 6 September 1838; Also in E.C.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998

[293] E.C.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998

[294] Neil Barnes, July 1998; House of Commons, Second Report from the Select Committee on Postage, Minutes of Evidence, 1 August 1838, p.337

[295] Woodham-Smith, Cecil, Queen Victoria, Hamish Hamilton, 1972, Volume 1, pp.201-202

[296] Woodham-Smith, p.202

[297] For details of other gifts presented to Luke Smithett by Royalty see page 55.

[298] From an obituary of Luke Smithett in a local newspaper – extract unfortunately does not have the title or date of the newspaper.

[299] Neil Barnes, July 1998

[300] Letter from Embassy of Belgium to Mrs V.G.Maddison, 20 August 1997

[301] Guy Stair Sainty, response to Email enquiry 23 July 1997,

[302] Catalogue of Personal Papers – National Maritime Museum – SMI/54.MS.072

[303] Catalogue of Personal Papers – National Maritime Museum – SMI/54.MS.072

[304] Hamilton, p.288; Butlin & Joll, p.248

[305] Ruskin, Works, Vol.VII, p.445 Note

[306] Lloyd, Michael, ed., Turner, National Gallery of Australia, 1996, pp.33-34 Painted in 1842, Tate Gallery, London.

[307] Butlin, Martin and Joll, Evelyn, The Paintings of J.M.W.Turner, revised edition, Yale U.P., London, 1984, p.247; Baily, pp.277-278; Hamilton, p.290

[308] Hamilton, p.294; Baily, p.366.

[309] Navy List – Neil Barnes 11 July 1998

[310] E.C.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998

[311] Jones, J.B., Annals of Dover, p.156

[312] Neil Barnes 11 July 1998

[313] House of Commons, Report of the Commissioners appointed to Survey the Harbours of the South-Eastern Coast, Minutes of Evidencs, 5 June 1844, pp.63-64

[314] Jones, 1907, p.161 states that he commenced service on the Irish station at the age of 25 and continued at Dover until 1854.

[315] House of Commons, Report of the Commissioners appointed to Survey the Harbours of the South-Eastern Coast, Minutes of Evidencs, 5 June 1844, pp.63-64

[316] Catalogue of Personal Papers – National Maritime Museum – SMI/54.MS.072

[317] Dover Telegraph and Cinque Ports Advertiser, Saturday 8 March 1845

[318] Shaw, Wm. A., The Knights of England, 2 Vols, Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, London 1971, Vol.IIp.346; The Times, London, 6 March 1845

[319] Barrow, p.123

[320] Pigot’s Commercial Directory of Kent, 1839, p. 44 lists Captain John Hamilton and Captain Luke Smithett at 7 Stroud Street, Dover

[321] The 1841 Census of Strond Street lists John Hamilton, aged 75, Captain with the Packet Service and his wife Sarah.

[322] Dover Poll Book, 1822 lists Captain John Hamilton Mariner but does not give the street address. The burial of his son Henry Duncan Hamilton of Snargate Street, is listed in the Parish Registers of St Mary the Virgin, Dover, 22 April 1822; IGI Film 355634

[323] Jones, J.Bavington, Dover, 1907

[324] Pigot’s Directory of Dover, 1839

[325] Neil Barnes, June 1998

[326] Census of 17 Snargate Street, 30 March 1851, provided by Neil Barnes, July 1998

[327] Neil Barnes, June 1998

[328] Barrow, p.13; National Maritime Museum and Navy List information supplied by Neil Barnes 11 July 1998;

[329] Barrow, pp.11-12

[330] Barrow, pp.119-124

[331] Barrow, p.12

[332] Catalogue of Personal Papers – National Maritime Museum – SMI/54.MS.072

[333] Jones, J.B., 1907, p.161; E.G.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998

[334] Catalogue of Personal Papers – National Maritime Museum – SMI/54.MS.072

[335] E.G.Barnes, typescript notes 21 February 1954, from Neil Barnes 24 July 1998; Also Catalogue of Personal Papers – National Maritime Museum – SMI/54.MS.072

[336] Boase, Frederick, Modern English Biography, Frank Cass & Co., London, 1965 (Originally 1901), Vol.3, p.653

[337] Statham, p.159

[338] Dover Telegraph, 17 January 1871

[339] Boase, Frederick, Modern English Biography, Frank Cass & Co., London, 1965 (Originally 1901); London Times, 3 February 1858 states that he died “at the residence of his son-in-law”.

[340] This should read 1852. Lady Sarah Hamilton died in February 1842 and was buried at St Mary's on 10 February 1842. Parish Register transcript supplied by Vera Maddison 4 October 1999.

[341] Kentish Gazette, Dover, 9 February 1858

[342] Dover Chronicle and Kent and Sussex Advertiser, Saturday 13 February 1858, supplied by Neil Barnes June 1998

[343] Family Bible, Neil Barnes, June 1998

[344] Boase, F., Vol.3, p.653

[345] Jones, J.B., Annals of Dover, p.161, 278

[346] Shaw, Vol.II p.390

[347] Dover Telegraph, January 1871

[348] Last Will and Testament of Sir Luke Smithett, dated 25 July 1870, copy supplied by Neil Barnes, July 1998

[349] Boase, Vol.3, p.653

[350] Deputy Lieutenant

[351] Dover Telegraph, January 1871

[352] Jones, J.B.,1907, p.161; Transcript of register of Cowgate Cemetery, supplied by Neil Barnes, 6 July 1998.

[353] The vault also contains the remains of Albert Lake Collins Smithett, of Camberwell, died 7 July 1870 age 30; Sarah Smith, of 46 Norfolk Terrace, Bayswater, London, died 25 March 1871 age 72; William Smithett, of Guilford Lawn, died 17 June 1881 age 82 – Transcript of Smithett/Spence vault at Cowgate Hill Cemetery supplied by Neil Barnes, 6 July 1998

[354] Parish Register of Baptisms, IGI Film355633

[355] Parish Register of Burials, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, IGI Film #1836142 , provided by Joan Maguire

[356] Parish Register of Marriages, St Mary the Virgin, Dover; IGI Film #355634. There is a second marriage entry dated 4 February 1777.

[357] Register of St Mary the Virgin, Dover. Transpript supplied by Vera Maddison4 October 1999

[358] Register of St Mary the Virgin, Dover. Transpript supplied by Vera Maddison4 October 1999

[359] Robert Lowther was accepted as a member of the church of St Mary the Virgin, Dover, on 15 August 1783. He was transferring from St Bees, Cumberland – Settlement Books, St Mary the Virgin, IGI Film # 1850515 Item 6.

[360] Dover Borough Records, Apprenticeship Enrolments, Indentures 1673-1788, IGI Film #1656692

[361] Parish Register of Burials, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, IGI Film #1836142 , provided by Joan Maguire

[362] Dover Borough Records, Apprenticeship Enrolments, Indentures 1673-1788, IGI Film #1656692

[363] Sometimes spelt Cornelous

[364] Parish Register of Marriages, IGI Film 355634

[365] Parish Register of Marriages, IGI Film 355634. The marriage was witnessed by Jane Lowther and Thomas Clement

[366] Register of Electors 1664-1865, Dover, Copy supplied by Dover Library via Shelagh Mason; Another copy obtained by John Hamilton Link 21 July 1975

[367] Parish Register of Burials, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, 8 February 1789, IGI Film 355634

[368] A Jane Hamilton died as an infant and was buried at St Mary the Virgin on 26 September 1799, but this girl was probably the daughter of James and Jane Hamilton, baptised on 10 September 1799. Also in 1789, on 18 May, Elizabeth Hamilton was buried at the church of St Paul in Canterbury - Canterbury Church Records, St Paul, Archdeacon’s Transcripts - IGI Film #1751627

[369] Banns 10, 17 ,24 April 1791; Married 2 May 1791 Parish Register St Mary the Virgin; Witnesses Thomas and Mary Spice, transcript supplied by Vera Maddison 4 October 1999; IGI 355634

[370] IGI Film 355633

[371] Thomas Spice ch.25 December 1764; John ch. 16 Nov 1766; Sarah, 8 September 1770; Mary, 8 September 1770; Ann, 9 May 1773 all at St Mary the Virgin, Dover, all listed in IGI C036561/355633

[372] Dover Poll Book 1822; Pigot’s Directory of Dover 1826-1827; Dover Poll Book 1830

[373] Dover Apprenticeship Indentures 1788-1892, p.257, IGI Film # 1656692

[374] Dover Apprenticeship Indentures 1788-1892, p.287, IGI Film # 1656692

[375] Dover Apprenticeship Indentures 1788-1892, p.293, IGI Film # 1656692

[376] Dover Apprenticeship Indentures 1788-1892, p.347, IGI Film # 1656692

[377] Dover Apprenticeship Indentures 1788-1892, p.369, IGI Film # 1656692

[378] Dover Apprenticeship Indentures 1788-1892, IGI Film # 1656692, searched from 1788-1840, no Richard Hamilton is listed.

[379] Parish baptism registers, IGI 355633; The IGI entry lists Richard's parents as Richard Hamilton and Sarah (Surname not given) however this is a transcription error as the original Parish Baptism Register clearly indicates that his parent's were Richard Hamilton and Catherine Spice. Transcript supplied by Vera Maddison, 4 October 1999 and (Joan Maguire 1997.

[380] Parish Baptism Registers, IGI Films 355633 , 355634; No other children are registered for Richard Hamilton and Catherine Spice in the Baptism Register for the church of St Mary the Virgin at Dover, nor are there any burials registered for children that may have been theirs.

[381] This is reported by Eckert, p.1; Hamilton, S.H., p.11 and Bell Family, p.11 but none give sources for this information. Correspondence from the Keeper of Manuscripts at the Guildhall library, London, 3 February 1998, indicates that no reference to Richard Hamilton could be found in the Christ’s Hospital Children’s Registers 1771-1842 (Ms 12818/11-15).

[382] Correspondence from the Keeper of Manuscripts at the Guildhall library, London, 3 February 1998, indicates that no reference to Richard Hamilton the First or Second, nor of William or John, not any of the sons of Richard the Second, apart from Henry, could be found in the Christ’s Hospital Children’s Registers 1771-1842 (Ms 12818/11-15).

[383] Chambers's Encyclopaedia, 1877, Vol.III, pp.19-20

[384] Thornbury, Walter, Old London - Shoreditch to Smithfield, The Alderman Press, London, 1987, p.370

[385] Thornbury, Walter, Old London - Shoreditch to Smithfield, The Aldrman Press, London, 1987, pp.364-380; Scargill, William Pitt, Recollections of a Blue-Coat Boy or a View of Christ's Hospital, S.R.Publishers, Originally 1829, Reprint 1968

[386] Thornbury, p.366

[387] Thornbury, p.367

[388] Scargill, William Pitt, Recollections of a Blue-Coat Boy or A View of Christ’s Hospital, Swaffam, 1829; Reprinted by S.R.Publishers, 1968, pp.59-60

[389] Thornbury, p.375

[390] Letters to the Principal of Christ’s Hospital School, now in Horsham, Sussex, requesting details about the Hamiltons from school archives have remained unanswered. However, correspondence from the Keeper of Manuscripts at the Guildhall library, London, 3 February 1998, indicates that no reference to Richard Hamilton the First or Second, nor of William or John, not any of the sons of Richard the Second, apart from Henry, could be found in the Christ’s Hospital Children’s Registers 1771-1842 (Ms 12818/11-15).

[391] Thornbury, p.377

[392] Thornbury, p.377

[393] City of London, Guildhall Library, Letter to Walter Hamilton, 11 October 1979, quoting Ms.12818A/103 No.42.

[394] Dover Apprenticeship Indentures 1788-1892, n.p., IGI Film # 1656692

[395] Thornbury, p.379

[396] Chambers, Vol.III, p.20

[397] Letters to Christ’s Hospital School in Sussex attempting to confirm these enrolments have remained unanswered. However, Correspondence from the Keeper of Manuscripts at the Guildhall library, London, 3 February 1998, indicates that no reference to Richard Hamilton the First or Second, nor of the uncles William or John, not any of the sons of Richard the Second, apart from Henry, could be found in the Christ’s Hospital Children’s Registers 1771-1842 (Ms 12818/11-15).

[398] Scargill, p.147

[399] Scargill, pp.148-149

[400] Dover Apprenticeship Indentures 1788-1892, IGI Film # 1656692

[401] Register of Electors 1664-1865, Dover, Copy supplied by Dover Library via Shelagh Mason. Another copy obtained by John Hamilton Link 21 July 1975

[402] Thomas Smithett's entry follows that of Richard Hamilton

[403] Chambers's Encyclopaedia, 1877, Vol.IV, p.505

[404] 5 & 6 Will.IV.c.76 Municipal Corporations Act

[405] Chambers's Encyclopaedia, 1877, Vol.IV, pp.433-434

[406] Dover Freeman’s Roll, 21 April 1826, No.501

[407] IGI, C036562/355633; James Hamilton baptised 3 February 1793 St Mary the Virgin, Dover; Also Joseph Hamilton, baptised 19 May 1797, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, Parents Adam Hamilton and Ann. There is a question raised by the baptism date of this James and the date of the Apprenticeship - normally an apprenticeship was begun at the age of fourteen or fifteen. This James would have been nineteen in 1812.

[408] Parish Register St Mary the Virgin, transcript supplied by Vera Maddison 4 October 1999; IGI M036561/8086; Willis, Canterbury Marriage Licences 1810-1837, p.47

[409] This suggestion made to John Hamilton Link by Dover Library, 21 July 1975.

[410] The spelling is without the ‘e’.

[411] Apprenticeship agreement at Dover, dated 2 October 1792

[412] All details from Parish Marriage and Baptism Registers at Canterbury - Shelagh Mason, Canterbury, March 1997

[413] The Story of the Holmes Family, written by William Holmes of Aberdeen, dated 9 February 1905 - copy passed on by Margaret Morrison via Marion Boyd, April 1997.

[414] A notice in the Adelaide Observer on 8 March 1913 stated that he celebrated his 93rd birthday on 14 February, however this notice and a later Obituary on 13 January 1917 have many inconsistent statements - such as stating that his parents also came on board the Duke of York after deciding not to go to the America, and that he was 94 at the time of his death.

[415] Birth dates from Bell Family 1728-1986, 1986, p.13. Available from Ronald Bell, 38 Strathcona Avenue, Clapham, S.A. 5260; Baptism Dates from baptism registers of St Mary the Virgin, Dover (supplied by Sandra Shaw, 5 Latham Court, East Doncaster, Victoria) are: Elizabeth, 11 May 1814; Richard, 25 March 1817; William, 20 February 1820; John, 13 February 1822; Sarah, 17 March 1824; Henry, 27 January 1826; Ann, 8 April 1828; Robert, 3 March 1830; Alfred, 4 July 1832. The register also confirms birth dates from John's birth onwards as given above.

[416] A typescript account of Hamilton's Wines - South Australia by R.T.Hamilton, 25 August 1977, states that Richard and Ann spent the first few years of their marriage at Ewell, Surrey. This document also states that Richard Hamilton was born in Scotland on 13 February 1792, but that is clearly incorrect. However, if this family legend refers to James Hamilton then Ewell, Surrey and a birthplace of Scotland could be possible.

[417] If the stories about living at Ewell in Surrey actually refer to an earlier generation - that of James Hamilton - then it could well be true that the Hamiltons of that generation spent some time in Ewell, Surrey. See page 16 for details.

[418] Bignell, Alan, Kent Villages, Hale, London, 1975, p.95

[419] Dover Poll Book, 1790

[420] House of Commons, Commission into Municipal Corporations, Vol.XXIV, Appendix Part II, Session 19 February - 10 September 1835, Report on Dovor, p.941

[421] Dover Apprenticeship Indentures 1788-1892, p.257, IGI Film # 1656692

[422] Dover Poll Book, 1822

[423] Pigot’s Directory of Dover, 1823-4, 1826-1827.

[424] These apprenticeships have been discussed earlier at page 59.

[425] Parish Register St Mary the Virgin, transcript supplied by Vera Maddison 4 October 1999.

[426] Dover Poll Books, 1832 - 1833

[427] No evidence of his death at this time has been located. The Parish Register of Burials for St Mary the Virgin does not list a Richard Hamilton as being buried there during the 1820s and 1830s, IGI Film #0355634.

[428] John Hamilton, Solicitor, born in 1795; Dover Freeman’s Roll1664-1865, 21 April 1826, No.501

[429] Pigot’s Directory of Dover, 1826-1827.

[430] John Hamilton, Solicitor is listed at 119 Snargate Street in the Dover Poll Books, 1830, 1832, 1833

[431] Dover Poll Book, 1835

[432] Winstanley, Michael J., Life in Kent at the turn of the Century, Wm.Dawson & Son, Folkestone, Kent, 1978, plate.15

[433] Fussell, L., Journey round the coast of Kent..., Baldwin, Craddock & Joy, London, 1818, p.155

[434] Harper, Charles G., The Dover Road - Annals of an Ancient Turnpike, Chapman & Hall, London, 1895, pp.341-343

[435] Addresses from the Parish Register of Burials, IGI Film 355634

[436] Addresses from the Parish Register of Burials, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, IGI Film 355634

[437] Dover Poll Books, 1830, 1832, 1833, 1835, 1837

[438] Dover Freeman’s Roll, 1841, No.269; Richard may have remained at 119 Snargate Street after the rest of the family left for South Australia in mid 1837 although by 1839 John Fox, Bookbinder, was listed as having his business at the address (Pigot’s Directory, 1839). He would have been aged 20 in 1837. His younger brother Henry, aged 11 in 1837, was still at the Blue Coat School .

[439] Pigot’s Directory of Dover, 1839

[440] Vestry Minute Books, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, IGI Film # 1850515 Item 1

[441] Dover Poll Book, 1822

[442] Address from the Parish Register of Burials, St Mary the Virgin, Dover, IGI Film 355634

[443] Pigot’s Royal, National and Commercial Directory and Topography of Kent, September 1839, pp.43-44

[444] Jones, J.B., Dover, 1907

[445] Pigot’s Directory for 1839 lists several Milliners including Alice Spice at 115 Snargate Street. Alice Spice was baptised on 9 May 1798 at St Mary the Virgin, Dover, and was the daughter of Thomas Spice and Sarah Elgar. Thomas, born in 1764 was brother of Catherine Spice who married Richard Hamilton the First.

[446] Bell Family, p.11, but no source of this speculation is given.

[447] Hamilton, S.H., p.11, again no source of the story is given.

[448] Peter Blanch, Internet URL: http://www.digiserve.con/peter/blues.htm for details of the Aldington Gang.

[449] Minutes of Evidence Taken before the Whole House and the Select Committee on the Affairs of the East India Company, Evidence from John Vivien, Solicitor, pp.217, 222, 231.

[450] Minutes of Evidence Taken before the Whole House and the Select Committee on the Affairs of the East India Company,, Letter from Dover Customs House, 10 August 1812

[451] British Parliamentary Papers, Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on the Affairs of the East India Company, 1812, Letter from Customs House, Dover, 10 August 1812

[452] British Parliamentary Papers, Minutes Taken in Evidence before the Whole House and the Select Committee on the Affairs of the East India Company, 1812, Vol.VII, Evidence from John Vivian, pp.215-239

[453] Guildhall Library, Letter to Walter Hamilton, 11 October 1979, quoting details of Henry Hamilton’s presentation paper (Ms.12818A/103 No.42)

[454] Passenger List, Katherine Stewart Forbes, details supplied by Walter Hamilton 29 July 1997

[455] He is not listed as an owner in a petition of May 1832. See page 72.

[456] House of Commons, Commission into Municipal Corporations, Vol.XXIV, Appendix Part II, Session 19 February - 10 September 1835, Report on Dovor, pp.940-950

[457] See page 54

[458] Thompson, pp.265, 568

[459] Thompson p.282

[460] Thompson p.283

[461] Thompson pp..283-285

[462] Thompson pp..283-285

[463] No burial record has been found in the Parish register of St Mary the Virgin at Dover between 1820 and 1840.

[464] Thompson p.289

[465] House of Commons, Reports from Commissioners, Corporations, England and Wales, Appendix Part II, Session 19 February - 10 September 1835, Vol.XXIV

[466] Wright, Christopher, Kent through the years, Batsford, London, 1975, p.141

[467] Wright, pp.142-146

[468] House of Commons, Commission into Municipal Corporations, Vol.XXIV, Appendix Part II, Session 19 February - 10 September 1835, Report on Dovor, p.955

[469] Wright, pp.141-146

[470] Kerr, Colin, ‘A Exelent Coliney’ The Practical Idealists of 1836-1846, Rigby, Adelaide, 1978, pp.7-8

[471] Blacket, Rev.John, History of South Australia: A Romantic and Successful Experiment in Colonization, 2nd Edn., Hussey & Gillingham, Adelaide, 1911, p.47

[472] Blacket, p.47

[473] Passenger and Crew List, Duke of York, Mortlock Library, Adelaide; An obituary notice in Adelaide Observer, Saturday 13 January 1917, states that he arrived in 1839 and that his parents were on board the Duke of York. There was a Mr and Mrs Hamilton listed among the passengers.

[474] The Parish Baptism Register for St Mary the Virgin at Dover shows that, during the 1830s, the father’s occupations were predominantly connected to the sea.

[475] Opie, E.A.D., South Australian Records Prior to 1841, Hussey and Gillingham, Adelaide 1917, Facsimile 1981, p.15; The Board of Commissioners in London had allowed the South Australian Company to list both the passengers and crew of the Duke of York, and several other ships, as emigrants. Thus the passenger lists include the names of crew members.

[476] Discussion of Mr and Mrs Hamilton in letter from William P.Holmesby, 33 Maple Avenue, Rostrevor, S.A. to Chief Archivist, Public Library of South Australia, filed 18 January 1985

[477] A privately owned brig, the 240 ton Sophia, had been to Kangaroo Island in 1820 and 1821 on sealing expeditions. It was later purchased by the government and renamed the Duke of York and based in Hobart. She was later laid up as a hulk for prisoners (Hobart Town Gazette, 27 May 1826)- Cumpston , J.S., Kangaroo Island 1800-1836, Roebuck Society, Canberra, 1970, p.54

[478] Blacket, p.47

[479] Cumpston, pp.144-145

[480] Cumpston , p.123

[481] Kerr, p.16

[482] Cumpston, p.123; Kerr, p.14

[483] Cumpston, pp.123, 145; Kerr, p.15

[484] Blacket, p.48

[485] Bull, John Wrathall, Early Experiences of Life in South Australia and an Extended Colonial History, E.S.Wigg & Son, Adelaide, 1884, pp.7-8

[486] Robert Russell, reported in Adelaide Observer, 31 July 1886, p.6; Kerr, pp.15-16

[487] Kerr, p.15

[488] Bull, p.8

[489] Cumpston, p.127 citing Captain Morgan’s Log, 2 August 1836

[490] Cumpston, p.145 citing Launceston Advertiser, 6 October 1836

[491] The reasons for this are discussed later.

[492] An account of the shipwreck by the second mate of the Duke of York, quoted in G. Edith Wells, Kangaroo Island of South Australia, Cradle of the Colony, p.61; ,Australian Shipwrecks, pp.124-125, gives the date as 14 July 1837

[493] Letter from Garnet Bell , PO Box 328, Kingscote, S.A., to Sandra Shaw, 11 May 1995, quoting G.Edith Wells, Kangaroo Island of South Australia, Cradle of the Colony, p.61.

[494] Australian Shipwrecks, pp.124-125; Letter from William P.Holmesby, 33 Maple Avenue, Rostrevor, S.A. to Chief Archivist, Public Library of South Australia, filed 18 January 1985

[495] Australian Shipwrecks, pp.124-125, citing Sydney Herald, 18 and 21 September 1837; Ewens, Colonising Ships, pp.9, 21

[496] Kerr, p.16

[497] Bishop, G.C., The Vineyards of Adelaide, Lynton Publications, Adelaide, 1977, p.39; S.H.Hamilton makes no mention of this supposed venture on Long Island

[498] Kerr, p.73

[499] House of Commons, Returns Relating to Land in South Australia, 10 April 1840, p.7

[500] House of Commons, Returns Relating to Land in South Australia, 10 April 1840, p.7

[501] These Applications are dated 5 July 1837, although the Katherine Stewart Forbes actually sailed on 26 June 1837. No explanation has been found for the discrepancy.

[502] Application for Embarkation, Katherine Stewart Forbes, 1837 - File No.1529 Vols HAB-HAN 22fh Mortlock Library, Adelaide - Obtained by Sandra Shaw 18 April 1995. Richard’s application was dated 5 July 1837, No.1185, Embarkation No.590

[503] Application for Embarkation, 6 June 1837, Nos.1106 and 1105, Embarkation Nos. 549 and 548.

[504] Copy held by R.T.Hamilton, Ivanhoe, 1977; Reproduced in S.H.Hamilton, p.13

[505] Bishop, p.39. Just how he would have managed to sell the land in the United States in the six weeks between obtaining the land order and embarking for South Australia is uncertain. ; S.H.Hamilton, p.11

[506] Application for Embarkation, 13 June 1837, No.1124 but no embarkation number was allocated.

[507] An article in the Adelaide Observer in 1913 to mark his 93rd birthday supposedly recounts key aspects of William Holmes Hamilton’s early career and highights the fact that he was among the first to arrive at Kangaroo Island. No mention is made of his being shipwrecked, an event which would presumably have merited some discussion if it had occurred.

[508] A letter written by Richard Hamilton on 21 November 1837 suggests that William was in fact a member of the crew. Dover Chronicle, Saturday 16 June 1838.

[509] Sydney Holmes Hamilton later stated that those left behind were Elizabeth Catherine, then aged twenty three and working as a milliner; John, aged fifteen and a Mariner, both of whom lived at Snargate Street; William Holmes Hamilton, aged seventeen, also a Mariner and living at Margate Street; and Henry, aged eleven and still at the Blue Coat School in London, S.H.Hamilton, p.12; By contrast Keith Eckert has stated , more accurately but still incorrectly, that only two children did not accompany their parents - Henry, who was still at the Blue Coat School, and William Holmes Hamilton, who was a seaman on the Duke of York, Eckert, p.1.

[510] Dover Electors Rolls 1841

[511] Pigot’s Directory of Dover, 1839, p.45

[512] Passenger List, Katherine Stewart Forbes, details supplied by Walter Hamilton 29 July 1997

[513] 6 June 1837 Number 596

[514] This list is the printout available from the Maritime Museum in Adelaide. The same list also names Henry Hamilton, a child, as a passenger, as well as young Richard Hamilton the Third. It also gives Richard Hamilton the Second’s occupation as being Vigneron and Farmer. The source of some of this information is therefore open to question.

[515] 5 July 1837 Number 591

[516] 5 July 1837 Numbers 592, 593, 594, 595 respectively

[517] House of Commons, Revenue from Emigrants on Ships to South Australia, 10 April 1840. Entry for 3 July 1837. The number of passengers varies in different documents.

[518] Sexton, p.50, states that the Katherine Stewart Forbes left Deptford Docks on 27 June 1837, and Gravesend on 28 June, as does John Croucher’s letter to his friends in Dover - Dover Chronicle 23 June 1838. Some have given the date 23 July 1837 as the departure date. Returns Relating to Land in South Australia, No.6, p.18, in the Third Report of the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia, 13 May 1839, lists the departure date as being 3 July 1837. The Times, Friday 30 June 1837 gives 26-27 June as the departure date.

[519] A computer printout from the South Australian Maritime Museum, passed on to Sandra Shaw, shows passengers arriving in South Australia in 1837. It lists Alfred, Ann, Anne Jane, Elizabeth Catherine, Henry, John, two Richards, Robert and Sarah (but not William). The list does not name which ship they arrived on. The source of the information is not given. By contrast a copy of the passenger list for the Katherine Stewart Forbes (Index 1048, Source 50, 1837 p.76) shows Richard Hamilton, his wife (as a steerage passenger), and four children aged 13, 9, 7, and 5. This corresponds with those listed on Richard’s application for embarkation. Elizabeth Catherine and John applied separately. William appears to have been a crew member and is therefore not listed as a passenger.

[520] The number varies in different documents.

[521] Opie, p.25

[522] S.H.Hamilton, p.11

[523] Sexton, R.T., Shipping Arrivals and Departures - South Australia 1627 - 1850, Gould Books - Roebuck Society, Adelaide, 1990, p.50

[524] Hawker, James C., Early Experiences in South Australia, E.S.Wigg, Adelaide, 1879, p.69

[525] Kerr, p.25

[526] Kerr, p.27

[527] IGI Film #1042936;- Andrew Duncan married Jean Morrison on 23 February 1794 at Glasgow. Their children were listed as:- John bp.4 Jan 1795; James bp.27 Apr 1797; Henryside/Handyside bp.23 Jul 1800; Andrew bp.14 Sep/14 Oct 1802; Jane Bryson bp.8 Jun 1804; Hanarsy bp.9 Oct 1806; Handasyde bp.2 Nov 1806; Andrew bp.20 Jun 1809; Hondasy bp.13 Nov 1811; Andrew bp.24 Jun 1814

[528] Kerr, p.26

[529] Kerr, p.28

[530] Kerr, p.29

[531] House of Commons, Returns Relating to Land in South Australia, 10 April 1840,

[532] House of Commons, Third Report of the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia, 13 May 1839, Returns of Land Relating to South Australia, No.6, p.18 lists the Hartley as departing on 18 May 1837

[533] Watts, Jane Isabella, Family Life in South Australia Fifty-Three Years Ago Dating From October 1837, W.K.Thomas & Co., Grenfell Street, 1890

[534] In her account Jane Watts refers to William Giles as “Mr.A”

[535] Watts,p.9

[536] Information from South Australian Maritime Museum, provided by Walter Hamilton, October 1997; Evidence given by Captain Alfred Fell to the Select Committee on South Australia in 1841 also indicates this.

[537] Watts,p.11

[538] Opie, p.23

[539] Sexton, p.50

[540] Kerr, pp.71-72

[541] Dutton, Geoffrey and Elder, David, Colonel William Light - Founder of A City, M.U.P., 1991, pp.204-235; Light, William, Brief Journal of the Proceedings of William Light - Late Surveyor General of the Province of South Australia, Adelaide, 1839, p.70; Price, p.74

[542] Ship's Passenger List, Katherine Stewart Forbes, S.A.Archives; S.H.Hamilton, pp.11-12;

[543] Kerr, p.43

[544] South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, Saturday 4 October 1837

[545] House of Commons, Second Report from the Select Committee on South Australia, together with Minutes of Evidence, Appendix and Index, 10 June 1841.

[546] See John Croucher’s letter below.

[547] John Croucher of Dover, who applied for emigration on the same day as John and Elizabeth Hamilton, and stayed with the Hamiltons in Adelaide for some time after arriving. The IGI lists no Crouchers either baptised or married at Dover between 1800 and 1840.

[548] Capper, Henry, South Australia, containing Hints to Emigrants..., London, 1838; Stephens, John, Land of Promise - Being an Authentic and Impartial History of the Rise and Progress of the New British Province of South Australia..., Smith and Elder, London, 1839, Facsimile Edn by Gillingham, Adelaide, 1988

[549] R.T.Hamilton, 1977; Roberts, pp. 118-120. Stories that they brought with them a prefabricated house appear to be incorrect as Richard Hamilton, in his letter, states that they lived in the marquee then built a house.

[550] Walter Hamilton gives a date of 23 December 1837 although this appears too late.

[551] Second Report of the Commissioners on Colonization of South Australia, Appendix No.7, Town Acre Blocks - Allotment Numbers and Original Owners, p.19. Henry Hewett is listed as having blocks 798 and 895.

[552] See John Croucher’s letter below. S.H.Hamilton, p.12 says they remained in their temporary home on the banks of the River Torrens until May 1838. The accounts given in the letters of Richard Hamilton and John Croucher suggest that this is not accurate.

[553] “M____” is unidentified.

[554] This was 23 year old John Croucher of Dover who applied for passage on the same day as John Hamilton.

[555] Each adult passenger was allowed half a ton of baggage, with extra being charged at a rate of £2/10/- per ton; Stephens, p.189

[556] This passage clearly refers to Richard’s son, William Holmes Hamilton. This suggests that William must have left the Duke of York , possibly at Hobart in September 1836 and returned to England where he joined the Katherine Stewart Forbes as a crew member rather than a passenger - thus explaining why no embarkation number was issued for him.

[557] Dover Chronicle and Kent Advertiser, Saturday, 16 June 1838, p.4. Paragraph breaks have been inserted in this transcription to make reading easier.

[558] South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, Saturday 20 January 1838

[559] Dover Chronicle and Kent Advertiser, Saturday, 23 June 1838. Some paragraph breaks have been added to make reading easier.

[560] This accords with most published accounts of when the ship left London.

[561] Thomas Pain, an Attorney and Registrar of the Cinque Ports, and Clerk of Dover Castle, lived next to Captain John Hamilton at Number 8 Strond Street, Dover, in 1839. It is not known who Ned Pain was.

[562] It is not known what John Croucher did after he left the Hamiltons. The South Australian Register for 27 January 1857 carried a notice of the death of John William Croucher, the eldest son of John Croucher, on 25 January 1857 at George Street, Norwood, South Australia.

[563] This Country Section was not taken up until early 1838 because of the delay in surveying.

[564] Royal South Australian Almanack for 1840, p.145 lists Richard Hamilton, farmer, at Hill Place in the Town Directory. He is not listed separately in the Country section.

[565] Price, p.112, quoting Great South Land - Articles on Emigration, Stirling, 1838

[566] Price, pp.113-114 quoting J.F.Bennett, South Australia, 1843

[567] Journal entry for 22 March 1838, Kerr, p.87

[568] South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, Saturday 20 January 1838

[569] South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, Saturday 20 October 1838

[570] Wm. Light to J.H.Fisher, Resident Commissioner, 15 April 1837, House of Commons, Second Annual Report of the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia, 26 January 1838, Appendix 4E; Price, p.76

[571] Price, p.80; James, T.H., Six Months in South Australia, 1838, p.230

[572] Price, pp.81-4

[573] Dutton, G. & Elder, D., p.234; Price, p.83

[574] Bell Family, p.11; S.H.Hamilton, p.12

[575] Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997

[576] Dolling, p.57 although the source is not given.

[577] Dolling, Alison, The History of Marion on the Sturt, Peacock, Adelaide, 1981, p.21 does not give the source of this information. The reason for the choice of name, Curtis Farm, is not known. Some documents use the spelling Curter’s Farm – Probate Application and South Australian Register 1852.

[578] Marriages of Richard Curtis to Eliza Gates in 1798, and Mark Curtis to Margaret Smith in 1784, both at St Mary the Virgin, Dover, were not witnessed by the Hamiltons. IGI Film #0355634.

[579] South Australian Register on Saturday 3 July 1841; The name of the farm may have been Hartley Farm as Henry Nell arrived at Adelaide on the ship Hartley a day after the Katherine Stewart Forbes, or it may have been named after his son Harley Thomas Nell.

[580] Walter Hamilton, July 1997, gives a purchase date of 7 March 1839

[581] South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, Saturday 24 November 1838

[582] All of this detail from Walter Hamilton of Glen Osmond, 29 July 1997

[583] Returns of farms for 1840 listed in The South Australian Register on Saturday 3 July 1841; Also listed in House of Commons, Second Report from the Select Committee on South Australia, Minutes of Evidence and Appnedix, 10 June 1841, Appendix, Enclosure No.4

[584] Returns of farms for 1840 listed in The South Australian Register on Saturday 3 July 1841 give Duncan’s name as Handyside while Dolling, p.24, gives Handasyde.; South Australian Almanack 1840, p.150

[585] Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997

[586] House of Commons, Returns Relating to Land in South Australia, 10 April 1840, p.31 - 27 September 1838, Mr Duncan, Surgeon on the Katherine Stewart Forbes was paid £2/2/- fees for carrying out medical examinations.

[587] House of Commons, Returns Relating to Land in South Australia, 10 April 1840, p.10

[588] Returns of farms for 1840 listed in The South Australian Register on Saturday 3 July 1841

[589] Dolling, p.57

[590] S.H.Hamilton, p.14

[591] Returns of farms for 1840 listed in The South Australian Register on Saturday 3 July 1841. Although the farm returns did have a column for “Other” cultivation as well as a general “Remarks” column no indication is given of any other cultivation having taken place at that time.

[592] S.H.Hamilton, p.14; The South Australian Register on Saturday 23 October 1841 give a full account of this importation of the vine cuttings and fruit trees from Cape Town

[593] The 1840 returns did not have a specific place to mark vine acreages, whereas the other crops did. There was an “Other” column and a general “Remarks” column in which comments about other farm activities could be made - cattle, sheep, hens, etc. - but none of the returns mentioned vines.

[594] Roberts, p.118; Bishop, p.39; Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997

[595] S.H.Hamilton, p.14; Dolling, p.57, quotes part of a letter written by Richard Hamilton to friends in South Africa asking for the vines to be sent out, but no source is given.

[596] S.H.Hamilton, p.14

[597] South Australia, Census, 1841, p.240 District B.

[598] Harley Thomas Nell was baptised on 1 July 1829 at Manchester Cathedral. He accompanied his father on board the Hartley in 1837.

[599] Harry Nell was born on 13 November 1840 and baptised at Holy Trinity, Adelaide on 10 December 1840. (Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997).

[600] Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997. Emma married on 27 June 1863; Keith Eckert, p. 1 states that Henry Nell died in 1843 while Marion Boyd gives 1845.

[601] S.A.Census 1841, 407, p.238 - Handasyde Duncan aged under 35, James Duncan under 14, Jane Duncan under 35

[602] S.A.Census 1841, 407, p.179-180 Catherine Duncan aged under 35, Walter Manser under 21

[603] The Bradford family was on Section 110 at the time.

[604] South Australian Almanack for 1841

[605] South Australian Almanack for 1842

[606] South Australian Almanack and Adelaide and Colonial Directory for 1843, MacDougall, p.123; Cotter, p.157

[607] The South Australian Almanack and General Directory for 1844, James Allen, Adelaide, p.201-2; No mention is made of the vines. Did Richard Hamilton have a middle name, possibly William? This may simply be an error as the 1840 return listed him as R.C.Hamilton in the Second Report of the Select Committee on South Australia.

[608] South Australian Register, 17 February 1844

[609] South Australian Register, Saturday 9 March 1844

[610] The South Australian Almanack and General Directory for 1844, James Allen, Adelaide, p.189.; Ewell News, Vol.2, No.1, issued by Hamilton's Ewell Vineyards Pty.Ltd.

[611] See page 76.

[612] See page 83.

[613] Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997, quoting S.A. Archives 1174; Cockburn, R., South Australia What’s in a Name, p.97

[614] Details of land transactions from Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997.

[615] Henry Nell was baptised on 29 January 1797 at St Olave, Southwark. He married Emma Barrett and had two sons, Harley Thomas, 1829, and Henry Wilson, 1830. (Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997)

[616] South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, Saturday 28 July 1838

[617] Sydney Holmes Hamilton later stated that those left behind were Elizabeth Catherine, then aged twenty three and working as a milliner; John, aged fifteen and a Mariner, both of whom lived at Snargate Street; William Holmes Hamilton, aged seventeen, also a Mariner and living at Margate Street; and Henry, aged eleven and still at the Blue Coat School in London, S.H.Hamilton, p.12; By contrast Keith Eckert has stated , more accurately but still incorrectly, that only two children did not accompany their parents - Henry, who was still at the Blue Coat School, and William Holmes Hamilton, who was a seaman on the Duke of York, Eckert, p.1.

[618] Pigot’s Directory of Dover 1839, indicates that John Fox, Bookbinder, had moved in to 119 Snargate Street by 1839, although Richard may have still lived there. Captain John Hamilton was at 7 Strond Street.

[619] Dover Electors Roll 1841

[620] Marriage Certificate, Richard Hamilton/Margaret Collins, 19 September 1850, Holy Trinity Church,Adelaide, 1850 #1581

[621] Application to distribute the estate of Richard Hamilton, 25 June 1879, lists addresses and occupations of his children - Walter Hamilton, July 1997

[622] See page 83.

[623] S.A.Census, 1841, 407,p.240

[624] South Australian Almanack and General Directory for 1845, Bennett, p.84

[625] There were a number of unclaimed letters for a William and a W.C.Hamilton in the South Australian Register on 22 July 1840, 16 October 1840 and 21 January 1841. No other reference to a William or W.C.Hamilton in Adelaide at that time has been found so these could have been for William Holmes Hamilton.

[626] Parish Register St Mary the Virgin, transcript supplied by Vera Maddison 4 October 1999. Keith Eckert p.35 gives May 1847; The IGI does not list a marriage for William Holmes Hamilton and Charlotte Laker at Dover during the 1840s.

[627] Parish Register St Mary the Virgin transcript supplied by Vera Maddison 4 October 1999. Sarah Ann Hamilton's parents names are not listed in the register, nor is her birth three years earlier.

[628] Cyclopaedia of South Australia, 1909, Vol.2, gives biographical details of both William Holmes Hamiltons but seems to get some details confused.

[629] South Australian Almanack and General Directory for 1847

[630] A South Australian Department of Lands map from 1876 shows that W.H.Hamilton already owned significant acreages at Western River (Sections 1302 and 2844) as well as Section 1285 at Emu Bay.

[631]Letter to Sandra Shaw from Garnet Bell, 18 January 1996

[632] Letter to Sandra Shaw from Nellie Harris 1 December 1995

[633] Letter to Sandra Shaw from Garnet Bell, 18 January 1996

[634] Cyclopaedia of South Australia, 1909, Vol.2, gives biographical details of both William Holmes Hamiltons but seems to get some details confused.

[635] Tombstone of Annie Freer Hamilton at Kingscote Cemetery, photographed in November 1990 by Kerralie Shaw and Andrew Korbel; Eckert, p.2; Holmesby 1985.

[636] IGI Film 355633

[637] His occupation is listed as Mariner on his Application for Embarkation

[638] Bell Family, p.11; S.H.Hamilton, p.12; Dolling, p.21; None of these give the source of this information.

[639] S.A. Census 1841, 407, p.162, Section 955. The Census gives his age as between 21 and 34. At the same time the 1841 Census also lists John Hamilton as being resident with his parents at Sturt (407, p.240); Letter from State Library of South Australia, 14 May 1980 states that John Hamilton’s marriage certificate on 31 March 1842 lists his address as being Section 148 on the Sturt.

[640] Colonel William Light, Brief Journal, Adelaide 1839; Dutton, p.230; Price, A., The Foundation and Settlement of South Australia 1829-1845, Adelaide, 1924, p.80; James, Horley T., Six Months in South Australia, 1838, pp.230, 288; Munchenberg, Reginald, The Barossa - A Vision Realised, Lutheran Publishing House, Adelaide, 1992

[641] Born at Hurstmonceux, Sussex on 2 June 1790. Worked as a farm labourer:- Lyn Graney to Marion Boyd 1997

[642] PRO, S.A., CO 386/150, Entry 5341, AJCP Reel 875; Sarah Vidler was born at Ticehurst, Sussex, and baptised on 17 February 1804 IGI 892355

[643] Lyn Graney to Marion Boyd, 1997

[644] Pevensey Baptisms IGI Film 504417; Walter bp 7 June 1829; Philip bp 13 March 1831; Rebecca bp 13 January 1833; Thomas bp 16 November 1834

[645] Westham Baptisms IGI Film 822887; William bp 23 April 1820; Margaret bp 6 December 1821; Sarah bp 17 April 1825; Delilah bp 29 April 1827; Aaron bp 7 August 1836; Mary 1 April 1838

[646] Royal National and Commercial Directory and Topography of the Counties of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Pigot and Co., London, September 1839

[647] Lyn Graney to Marion Boyd, 1997

[648] PRO, S.A., CO 386/150, Entry 5342, AJCP Reel 875; Embarkation Number 3231

[649] PRO S.A. CO 386/150, Entry 5341, AJCP Reel 875; Embarkation Number 3230; Letter from State Library of South Australia, 14 May 1980; also supplied by Joan Maguire 31 August 1997

[650] Lyn Graney states that only six of the children lived and only five emigrated to South Australia, quoting Embarkation Numbers 3230 (William), 3231 (Sally) and 3232 (Margaret) with three male children and one female child being listed. A Mortlock Library Shipping list (provided by Marion Boyd) gives David Manser, Application No. 5343, Margaret Manser, 5342, and William Manser with one female and six children, 5341, with Embarkation numbers as listed. On this list William Manser’s occupation is given as Agricultural Labourer.

[651] Embarkation Number 3232, Application Number 5343 1 July 1839 Supplied by Joan Maguire 31 August 1997

[652] Malcolm Manser 1997

[653] Reported by Malcolm Manser, 1997. There was also a John Hamilton listed on board the Glenswilly which arrived at Adeleide on 18 September 1839 (S.A.Archives, 743, v.1, p.328) but no application for his emigration has been located - Letter from State Library of South Australia, 14 May 1980.

[654] Section 108 - Returns of farms for 1840 listed in The South Australian Register on Saturday 12 June 1841

[655] Section 108 - Returns of farms for 1840 listed in The South Australian Register on Saturday 12 June 1841

[656] Letter from Malcolm Manser of Highlands, Mount Crawford, 24 August 1997

[657] Section 107 - Returns of farms for 1840 listed in The South Australian Register on Saturday 12 June 1841

[658] Section 107 - Returns of farms for 1840 listed in The South Australian Register on Saturday 12 June 1841

[659] Parish Register, Holy Trinity, Adelaide - supplied by Joan Maguire.

[660] S.A.Census, 1841, 407, p.179-180. The family is listed as being William and Sarah, both aged under 50; David under 21; Philip under 14; Rebecca under 14; Thomas under 7; Avon under 7; and James under 7. The identity of the David is uncertain, it may be Edward or it may be another son born between 1821 and 1825. Similarly, Thomas may be a child born on the voyage out or after arrival, as Thomas born in 1834 apparently died as an infant.

[661] Section 107 - Returns of farms for 1840 listed in The South Australian Register on Saturday 12 June 1841

[662] Price, p.141

[663] Letter from Malcolm Manser 24 August 1997 who states that the land was originally owned by Rev.Miller

[664] Malcolm Manser, 1997

[665] The tree was still growing in a healthy condition in 1998.

[666] Malcolm Manser, 1997

[667] Watts, pp.18-19

[668] Lyn Graney 1997. Letter from Malcolm Manser, 24 August 1997.

[669] Margaret Manser gave Pineshill as her address when she married John Hamilton on 31 March 1842 - S.A.Marriage Certificate.

[670] South Australian Almanack and General Directory, 1843, MacDougall, p.14 Country Districts; In 1843 there were to South Australian Almanacks published. One was edited by Archibald MacDougall and listed Cotter at Chingford. The other, edited by Cotter himself, listed William Manser at Chingford and Cotter both at his Grenfell Street freehold and at Pineshill. Cotter p.148 , p.169, p.179

[671] Letter from Malcolm Manser of Highlands, Mount Crawford, 24 August 1997

[672] South Australian Almanack and General Directory, 1844, p.208

[673] South Australian Almanack and General Directory, 1844, p.249

[674] Lyn Graney states that adjoining Sections 949, 951 and 1185 were also added to William Manser’s holdings. Malcolm Manser (24 August 1997) states that Sections 949 and 951 were not owned or worked by the Mansers, but that Section 953 was.

[675] Lyn Graney 1997; William Manser died aged 77 in 1868, Sally died on 2 October 1860. Their graves are in the Cemetery just south of Mount Crawford.

[676] Watts, pp.100-103

[677] Malcolm Manser, 1997, says “they saw no white man, only blacks”.

[678] S.A.Census 1841, 407, p.204

[679] Baptism Register, SRG 94/2/2, v.1, p.149

[680] Holy Trinity Church, Marriage Register, State Library of South Australia Archives, Accession No.1486, p.63

[681] Holy Trinity Church, Baptism Register, Richard Hamilton born 29 May 1842, baptised 7 November 1842, Parents John and Margaret Hamilton of Curtis Farm, Occupation Labourer

[682] Holy Trinity Church, Baptism Register, George Hamilton born 10 September 1843, baptised 5 October 1843, Parents John and Margaret Hamilton of Pineshill, Occupation Labourer

[683] South Australian Almanack and General Directory, 1844, p.249

[684] South Australian Almanack and General Directory, 1844, p.249

[685] South Australian Almanack and General Directory, 1847

[686] Birth Certificate, Mary Ann Hamilton, 25 September 1844, Barossa, Book 1, p.82

[687] Baptism Register, Holy Trinity Church Adelaide, Mary Ann Hamilton, born 25 September 1844, baptised 7 December 1845, Parents John and Margaret Hamilton of St Mary’s, Occupation Farmer.

[688] Dates supplied by Marion Boyd and checked by her against Victorian and South Australian Indexes.

[689] Marriage certificate, Tom Henderson/Sarah Hamilton, 19 March 1842, Holy Trinity Church, Adelaide

[690] Opie, pp.24, 36; Also on board were a Rachel Wilkie and C.Wilkie

[691] Heather Heymer, 31 December 1997

[692] State Library of South Australia, Letter to Dorothy Hughes, 14 March 1979, quoting ages and origins of passengers in an Application for Free Passage

[693] Stephens, p.170

[694] State Library of South Australia, Letter to Dorothy Hughes, 14 March 1979

[695] South Australian Almanacks, 1840 p.145; 1841 p.121; 1842 p.123; 1843 p.147; 1844 p.272; Platt’s Almanac, Diary and South Australian Directory, 1851, pp.121,122, 123

[696] Holy Trinity Church, Baptism Register, Thomas Henderson, born 17 February 1843, baptised 20 March 1843, Parents Thomas and Sarah Henderson, Melbourne Street, Occupation Labourer - provided by Joan Maguire.

[697] From Gwen Chamberlain of Curtin, ACT, August 1997. Richard May and Ann Stephens were married at St Germans, Cornwall, on 27 February 1821.

[698] From Gwen Chamberlain of Curtin, ACT, August 1997

[699] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[700] South Australian Register, 4 April 1840

[701] The 1841 Census Index lists only one Robert Hamilton

[702] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[703] This story was related by Jean Pollock of Maryborough, daughter of Mabel Pollock (Hamilton) to Linda Clark.

[704] Marriage Certificate, Robert Hamilton/Elizabeth Ann Berriman, 20 January 1853, United Church of England, St Mary’s, Sturt, No.43.

[705] Sandra Shaw 1995

[706] A more comprehensive account of Henry Hamilton and the Ewell Vineyards is given in Alison Dolling, The History of Marion on the Sturt, Peacock, Adelaide, 1981, pp.56-66

[707] Walter Hamilton of Glen Osmond, S.A., has possession of a Prayer Book presented to Henry Hamilton by the Governors of the Christ’s Hospital School.

[708] Guildhall Ms 12818A/103 No.42 - Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997

[709] Guildhall Ms 12818/15 fo.175 - Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997

[710] Bishop, p.39

[711] Eckert, p.1; Bell Family, pp.11-12; It seems unlikely that she would have been able to calculate the date of arrival quite so accurately, unless she allowed a week or so either side of the expected date of arrival.

[712] S.H.Hamilton, p.14

[713] Bell Family, pp.11-55

[714] Some have suggested it was Ewell after the town in Ewell in Surrey. It could equally be Ewell, near Dover in Kent. A typescript account of Hamilton's Wines - South Australia by R.T.Hamilton, 25 August 1977, states that Richard and Ann spent the first few years of their marriage at Ewell, Surrey, but as the children were registered at St Mary, Dover it seems more likely that it was Ewell, Kent. This document also states that Richard Hamilton was born in Scotland on 13 February 1792, but that is clearly incorrect - see page 63. However, if this family legend refers to James Hamilton then Ewell, Surrey and a birthplace of Scotland could be possible. A James Hamilton married Sarah Buckwell at Ewell, Surrey, on 22 November 1857 (IGI 097137) and had a son, James, who was christened on 27 August 1758. A clear connection between this family and the Dover Hamiltons has not been established - see page 15.

[715] Eckert, p.4

[716] Bell Family, p.55

[717] Eckert, p.5; Bell Family, p.55

[718] Dates from Marion Boyd, 13 March 1997; Adelaide Observer, 16 February 1907, quoted by Eckert, p.5

[719] Pike, Douglas, Paradise of Dissent, South Australia 1827-1857, 1957; Blake, L.J., Gold Escort, The Hawthorne Press, Melbourne, 1975, p.15

[720] Blake,p.16

[721] Blake,p.18

[722] South Australian Register, Friday 2 January 1852

[723] South Australian Register, 15 January 1852

[724] South Australian Register, Saturday 21 January 1852

[725] Blake,pp.31-41

[726] Tolmer, Alexander, Reminiscences of an Adventurous and Chequered Career at Home and at the Antipodes, 2 Vols, Samson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, London 1882, Vol.2, p.127

[727] South Australian Register, 15 and 23 January 1852, and almost every other day

[728] Tolmer,pp.127-133; Blake,p.51

[729] Ragless, Margaret, Oliver's Diary - an 'andkirchef of eirth, Investigator Press, Adelaide, 1986

[730] Tolmer, p.137

[731] Blake, p.76

[732] Blake, p.86

[733] Tolmer, pp.137-8

[734] Blake, pp.206-7; Gold Consignors - First Escort, Tolmer's Receipts, S.A.Archives 746

[735] Dr.C.C.Salmon, Talbot Leader, 31 October 1908

[736] Mrs John Potter, Talbot Leader, 31 October 1908

[737] For a full account of the early discovery of gold at Amherst see Douglas Wilkie, A History of Education in the Amherst and Talbot Districts 1826-1862, Master of Education Thesis, Monash University, 1986; See also Douglas Wilkie, Why Amherst?, one of the chapters in the Family Chronicles series

[738] South Australian Register, Wednesday, 5 May 1852

[739] South Australian Register, Tuesday, 4 May 1852

[740] South Australian Register, Tuesday 11 May 1852

[741] South Australian Register, 14 May 1852

[742] South Australian Register, Tuesday 8 June 1852

[743] Adelaide Times, 12 June 1852. - passed on by Sandra Shaw

[744] Blake, p.104

[745] Tolmer, p.166; Blake, p.113

[746] Tolmer, pp.166-170

[747] Blake, p.117

[748] South Australian Register, 5 July 1852

[749] South Australian Register, 22 July 1852

[750] South Australian Register, 11 August 1852

[751] South Australian Almanack and General Register for 1844, lists Robert Cowley at Plympton with 3 acres of wheat, 1 acre of barley, 2 acres of garden and 2 cattle

[752] From Keith Eckert who quotes South Australian Register, Saturday, 11 September 1852

[753] Death Certificate, Richard Hamilton, 30 August 1852, Sturt, South Australia, #3624

[754] Application for Probate, provided by Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997

[755] Henry married Mary Bell on 5 August 1851

[756] S.H.Hamilton, p.14

[757] S.H.Hamilton pp.14-15

[758] Marriage Certificate, Robert Hamilton/Elizabeth Ann Berriman, 20 January 1853. The marriage, being by banns, would have required the posting of a notice announcing the intended marriage during the three weeks preceding the marriage date, indicating that Robert, and his brothers, were almost certainly back at the Sturt by Christmas 1852.

[759] In the first edition of this book I suggested that Thomas Henderson accompanied the Hamiltons on the 1852 journey, however the sequence of births of the Henderson children suggests that this was unlikely.

[760] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[761] It has been suggested that John and Margaret Hamilton returned to Amherst earlier than Robert - Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[762] Related by Walter Hamilton of Glen Osmond, South Australia, who has the tea spoon in his possession - January 1998

[763] Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997

[764] Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997

[765] Death Certificate, Ann Hamilton, 30 April 1886, Sturt, South Australia No.20

[766] The land was gazetted for sale on 30 May 1855.

[767] Victorian Post Office Directory, 1868-1869; 1880-1881

[768] Victorian Electoral Roll, 1856, Daisy Hill Division, lists John Hamilton, dairyman, with a freehold worth £100.

[769] National Schools Board, Inward Correspondence, 1856, 56/712; See Douglas Wilkie, , A History of Education in the Amherst and Talbot Districts 1836-1862, Master of Education Thesis, Monash University, 1986, for a more complete history of the schools of this period.

[770] Denominational Schools Board, Inward Correspondence, 56/824; The Hendersons or other Hamiltons do not appear on the list of contributors.

[771] Victorian Government Gazette, 3 September 1858

[772] Victorian Government Gazette, 23 November 1858; For a more detailed account of the municipal council see Douglas Wilkie, A History of Education in the Amherst and Talbot Districts 1836-1862, Master of Education Thesis, Monash University, 1986

[773] Marriage Certificate, John Cosstick/Mary Anne Hamilton, 31 January 1861, Amherst, Victoria

[774] Caroline later married her cousin Walter Alfred Hamilton.

[775] Names and dates from Marion Boyd, March 1997

[776] Board of Education, Inward Correspondence, Bishop of Melbourne to Acting Secretary, 62/162

[777] Denominational Schools Board, Inward Correspondence, Garlick-Budd, 14 February 1861, 61/454

[778] Board of Education, Inward Correspondence, Bishop of Melbourne to Acting Secretary, 62/162

[779] Board of Education, Inward Correspondence, Hamilton to Board of ducation, 62/496; See Douglas Wilkie, , A History of Education in the Amherst and Talbot Districts 1836-1862, Master of Education Thesis, Monash University, 1986, for a full account of this episode.

[780] Victorian Post Office Directories, 1868, 1880

[781] Bailliere’s Victorian Directory, 1868, 1869, 1870

[782] Wise’s Victorian Post Office Directory, 1888-1889

[783] Mabel Hamilton to Jean Pollock - Sandra Shaw 1997

[784] TL, 12 may 1889

[785] Death Certificates, John Hamilton and Margaret Hamilton

[786] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978 who mentions an unidentified press cutting which confirms the date.

[787] National Schools Board, Inward Correspondence, 1856, 56/712; No mention is made of thirteen year old Thomas Henderson, born 1843, nor twelve year old Hamilton Henderson, born 1844.

[788] S.H.Hamilton reports this as being a bullock-team goods service between the goldfields and Adelaide, and confuses her second husband, William Cosstick, with Tom Henderson, p.15.

[789] Inquest into the Death of Thomas Henderson, 2 June 1858

[790] Wilkie, Douglas, The Cossticks 1700-1900, 1998

[791] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[792] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978

[793] Mabel Pollock to Les Henderson - Related by Les Henderson to R.H.Hamilton, August 1978. Also Jean Pollock and R.T.Hamilton reported by Dorothy Hughes 18 August 1980

[794] Victorian Electoral Roll, 1856, Daisy Hill Division. Alfred later returned to live in South Australia, transferring his share of the farm to Henry on 14 May 1888 (Walter Hamilton, 29 July 1997).

[795] Land Survey Maps from 1859 show John Hamilton’s land between High Street and Cambridge Street, Amherst, and another country block north of Whitehorse Reef in the name of R.Hamilton.

[796] P.R.O.V. Land Grants Files R.Hamilton, Parish of Bung Bong, File No.4051/49; Richard later returned to South Australia and in 1879 was living at Birkenhead near Port Adelaide.

[797] Adelaide Register, 28 December 1865; Sandra Shaw 1997

[798] Formerly Mary Pritchard.

[799] Sandra Shaw 1997; Marriage Certificate, Robert Hamilton/Ann Parry, 9 July 1866, The Parsonage, Talbot

[800] See Family Chronicles - The Cossticks for details of the Cosstick family.

[801] Maryborough Rate Books, 1901-1902, Assessment 452 Pekin Road, Robert and Albion Hamilton, Wooden House, Value £10 Rate 10/-; 1902-1903, Assessment 458 Pekin Road, Robert Hamilton, miner, Owner, Value £10 Rate 12/6; Assessment 459, Albion Hamilton, miner, Owner, Wooden House, Value £10 Rate 12/6; 1903-1904 Assessment 459 Robert Hamilton, Owner, Wooden House, Value £10 Rate 12/6

[802] Robert Hamilton’s Will states that he had a one-third share in Hamilton and McCann ,Cyaniders, of Maryborough.

[803] Marriage Certificate, Albion Hamilton/ , Maryborough, 28 June 1905; Sandra Shaw 1997

[804] Maryborough Standard, 31 August 1911

[805] S.H.Hamilton, pp.14-15

[806] S.H.Hamilton, p.15

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